Summary: In different fields, quantitative microstructural analysis (QMA) has become established as a method for characterizing materials and raw materials. Many studies show that the microstructure of the raw materials significantly influences the product properties (e.g. product shape, particle size distribution), comminution energy and wear. For this reason, it is necessary not only to use qualitative data, but increasingly to collect and utilize quantitative data for optimization of mineral processing. This article provides an overview of selected processes and methods of QMA in geology, petrography, mineralogy and processing of mineral resources.